| The Indian state of Rajasthan voted Friday in an election that is a key test for Prime Minister Narendra Modi, with a local princess representing his party facing a tough fight to stay in power.
The vote in the western state famous for its palaces, forts and deserts, home to 47 million people, is one of five state elections before Modi runs for a second term in national polls in 2019.
Results from Rajasthan, as well as Telangana, also voting on Friday, plus from Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Mizoram - which have already cast ballots - will be published on December 11.
The most closely watched will be the central state of Madhya Pradesh, which polls suggest Modi's BJP might suffer a bitter defeat after 15 years in power.
The contests are seen as a dry run for 2019, with Modi and his likely rival from the Congress party Rahul Gandhi.
Vasundhara Raje, Rajasthan's chief minister and a charismatic "Maharani" or female Maharaja representing Modi's BJP, swept to power in a landslide victory in 2013.
But her personal popularity has waned, with critics calling her autocratic and out of touch with the interests of ordinary people. Her government has also been criticized for failing to boost investment and create jobs.
Rajasthan is one of India's few regions where local royal families have successfully transitioned to democratic politics.
Ayodhya Prasad Gaur, author of a book on one of the state's leading royal families, told AFP that the nobility's popularity had to do with their "permanence" compared to ordinary politicians who just "come and go."
"The erstwhile rulers of Jodhpur still receive a wedding invite - just like kings of earlier times - from hundreds if not thousands of people in the region each year. And they maintain that relationship by sending a token amount as a gift for every invite they receive," Gaur told AFP.